Google Scholar. In this review, we first summarize various evolutionary continuities of vertebrate skeletal systems. Schneider RA, Helms JA: The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Regardless, the views of Couly et al. Article  Fürbringer M: Über die spino-occipitalen Nerven der Selachier und Holocephalen und ihre vergleichende Morphologie. The unique chordate body plan evolved within the deuterostome animals sometime before the Cambrian (Valentine, Jablonski, and Erwin 1999; Blair and Hedges 2005). In Problems in Vertebrate Evolution. “Is histological development as complete a test of homology as morphological development?” (Huxley, 1864 [1]: 296). Edited by Hanken J, Hall BK. This arrangement prompts the speculation that the distinction between neurocrania and viscerocrania will correspond to that of their embryonic cell lineages, i.e., mesoderm and neural crest. Couly G, Grapin-Botton A, Coltey P, Ruhin B, Le Douarin NM: Determination of the identity of the derivatives of the cephalic neural crest: incompatibility between In Major Transitions in Vertebrate Evolution. Changes in the regulation result in evolutionary changes in the adult. Median appendages are found in fishes and aquatic tetrapoda, and paired appendages are found in all vertebrates except cyclostomes. Note that the occipital represents an endoskeletal vertebral element secondarily assimilated to the cranium in gnathostomes. Hayashi S, Carpenter K, Scheyer TM, Watabe M, Suzuki D: Function and evolution of ankylosaur dermal armor. Start studying Ch. Correspondence to (C) Enlarged image of the primordial gastralia, showing the matrix that is stained with Alcian blue (arrowhead), which appears transiently before the bony tissue is formed. Claessens LPAM: Dinosaur gastralia; origin, morphology, and function. method of reproduction . Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. However, the gastralia embryonically develop in close association with the rectus abdominis muscle in a deep layer, whereas other trunk exoskeletal elements develop close to the epidermis [22,23] (see also Figure 2). Homologies between various dermal elements in B and F are indicated by color. Development 2007, 134:3133–3144. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum In contrast, the viscerocranium is composed of serial and metameric visceral arch skeletons surrounding the pharynx. Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny (the evolution of species).. It has –a furry body, ... –an internal skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate, –flattened scales covered with mucus, –an operculum that covers a chamber of gills, and Basel: Schwabe & Co; 1969. This view is supported by recent histological data from placoderms (a taxon of stem-gnathostomes), indicating that the condition seen in extant chondrichthyans is derived. Malden: Wiley; 2005. Curr Biol 2013, 23:R336–R337. Jawed vertebrates appeared in fossil record about __440____ million years ago Benefit(s) of a jaw? (F) Dorsal view of the lower jaw. Development 2002, 129:1061–1073. It has been contended that Reif's odontode regulation theory is a rival and alternative to Stensiö and ørvig's lepidomorial theory as means of explaining the evolution of development of the vertebrate dermal and oral skeleton. Donoghue PCJ, Sansom IJ: Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization. Development 1993, 117:409–429. In Biology of the Reptilia, Vol 14: Development A. In these views, the elements colored grey are of mesodermal origin. These proteins contain single Xlink domains (Fig. Permissions team. They lived between 500 and 600 million years ago. In Ontogeny and Systematics. New embryonic technologies have apparently dispelled the above unsubstantiated assumptions. Smith HM: Classification of bone. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1993:36–68. J Vert Paleontol 2005, 25:745–756. Furthermore, these current and previous findings coincide perfectly if we admit misidentification of the boundary between the frontal and parietal regions in mammals and avians: the supraoccipital region is the dorsal portion of a mesodermal element serially homologous with the vertebrae, and the interparietal region may not be present in avians (for the homology and evolution of the interparietal region, see [129] and references therein). Based on fossil evidence, the gastralia are thought to have evolved from exoskeletal bony scales and thus are exoskeletal elements [21]. The phylogenetic tree in Figure below gives an overview of vertebrate evolution. ). (C and D) and Entelognathus Please check the 'Copyright Information' section either on this page or in the PDF It is true that the morphological homology of skeletal elements cannot be reduced directly to the developmental program, or homology of genes, involved in the generation of homologous structures. Edited by Anderson JS, Sues HD. As the notochord is being laid down, cells proliferate from each side of the primitive streak, forming the mesoderm, which spreads out laterally and, as a result of migration and multiplication of cells, soon comes to occupy most of the space between the ectoderm and the endoderm on each side of the notochord. The other effect is developmental drift: the developmental process and mechanisms would shift without changing the readout of the shifted developmental process, thus maintaining the ancestral morphological pattern in the adult. Zool Sci 2013, 30:944–961. As noted earlier, morphological homology was in the past reduced to its developmental origins in cell lineages and germ layers, as seen in von Baer’s germ layer theory (reviewed by [6]). J Mammal 1945, 26:146–147. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 2007:57–121. Cebra-Thomas JA, Terrell A, Branyan K, Shah S, Rice R, Gyi L, Yin M, Hu YS, Mangat G, Simonet J, Betters E, Gilbert SF: Late-emigrating trunk neural crest cells in turtle embryos generate an osteogenic ectomesenchyme in the plastron. J Anat 2007, 210:542–554. In the evolutionary context, there are at least two significant effects worth considering. The skeletal muscle Na v (Na v 1.4) channels in most pufferfish species and certain North American garter snakes are resistant to TTX, whereas in most mammals they are TTX-sensitive. It remains uncertain whether the baculum evolved from the epipubic bone of non-eutherian mammals [35], but examples of the baculum and epipubic bone are suggestive of a novel cartilage bone (a component of the endoskeletal system) that was acquired as an autapomorphy of a specific clade. Koyabu D, Maier W, Sánchez-Villagra MR: Paleontological and developmental evidence resolve the homology and dual embryonic origin of a mammalian skull bone, the interparietal. (A) Transverse section of the ventral trunk of an embryo at stage 17. The notochord, which constitutes the earliest structure that stiffens the embryo, appeared in animals before the true vertebral column evolved. Google Scholar. We thank Ruth Elsey and Neil Shubin for the gift of American alligator embryos, and Dai Koyabu for critical reading of the manuscript and valuable discussions. PubMed  Vertebrates are a well-known group of animals that includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.The defining characteristic of vertebrates is their backbone, an anatomical feature that first appeared in the fossil record about 500 million years ago during the Ordovician period. The last section summarizes the main foci of the remaining 10 chapters. Shimada A, Kawanishi T, Kaneko T, Yoshihara H, Yano T, Inohaya K, Kinoshita M, Kamei Y, Tamura K, Takeda H: Trunk exoskeleton in teleosts is mesodermal in origin. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1977. However, the odontogenic components seen in chondrichthyans are believed to represent the vestige of the enameloid- and dentine-coated bones of ancestral jawed vertebrates, in which the bony portion was lost secondarily [51]—the exoskeleton of stem-gnathostomes likely was composed primarily of bone. Zeit wiss Zool 1933, 144:510–572. Nat Rev Genet 2008, 9:868–882. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrate … Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck J Anat. 2B) and are involved in lymphocyte migration (Kzhyshkowska et al., 2006; Ponta et al., 2003). However, Couly et al. Presumably the typical dermal bones found in fishes (including placoderms) became secondarily sunken exoskeletal elements concomitant with the shift in developmental interactions to induce membranous ossification in a deeper layer of the dermis, as found in amniotes. Dev Dyn 2013, 242:1223–1235. In the higher vertebrates, including humans, the notochord is a temporary structure, persisting only as a minute canal in the bodies of the vertebrae and in the central part of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disks. The earliest vertebrates were jawless fish, similar to living hagfish. Mongera A, Nüsslein-Volhard C: Scales of fish arise from mesoderm. J Anat 2013, 222:41–55. PubMed  CAS  The lateral line system of fishes and many amphibians comprises lines of mechanoreceptive neuromasts distributed over the head and trunk. J Morphol 1999, 240:143–153. Oisi Y, Ota KG, Kuraku S, Fujimoto S, Kuratani S: Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates. Asterisks indicate paraphyletic groups. In contrast, the skull contains neural crest-derived bones in its rostral part. According to histological analyses of fossils, perichondral ossification evolved in the clade containing osteostracans and jawed vertebrates, whereas the endoskeletons of galeaspids comprise calcified cartilages, not perichondral bones [45]. Gaupp E: Die Entwicklung des Kopfskelettes. However, here, we confirm, through a review of both classical and recent research, that both histogenesis and cell lineage are decoupled with the two independent lineages of skeletal systems, namely endo- and exoskeletons, the continuities of which are inferable from comparative morphology. (B) Transverse section of the ventral trunk of an embryo at stage 19. PubMed Central  Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Mesodermal dermal elements were associated primarily with various lateral lines in ancestral forms, and other elements were all derived from the neural crest (Figure 5D and F). The dermatocranium (excluding the supraoccipital bone) was primarily derived from the mesoderm ancestrally, and new crest-derived elements were intercalated secondarily to accommodate adaptation to the expansion of the cranial vault in different ways in each animal lineage, thus obliterating homologies of bones. Vickaryous MK, Hall BK: Development of the dermal skeleton in CAS  Arendt E: De capitis ossei Esocis Lucii structura singulari. Alcian-blue, hematoxylin and eosin stains; scale bar, 100 μm. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag; 1979. Clack JA: Gaining Ground: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods. Vertebrate groups are organized phylogenetically, and their systems discussed within such a context. In the interspaces between adjacent myotomes of each side, an extension from each sclerotomic mass passes laterally and forward to form the costal, or rib, element. De Beer GR: Embryos and Ancestors. Evolution of the vertebrate skeleton: morphology, embryology, and development. PubMed Google Scholar. Nature 2005, 436:347–355. Here are various groups of vertebrates in the order in which they evolved. Downs JP, Donoghue PCJ: Skeletal histology of Vertebrates features a unique emphasis on function and evolution of vertebrates, complete anatomical detail, and excellent pedagogy. Questions remain regarding homologies (evolutionary continuities) of the dermal elements (reviewed by [8]), as well as their early evolution. Proc Linn Soc Lond 1966, 177:1–10. Zhu M, Yu XB, Ahlberg PE, Choo B, Lu J, Qiao T, Qu QM, Zhao WJ, Jia LT, Blom H, Zhu YA: A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. % Progress . Huxley TH: Lectures on the elements of comparative anatomy. Evolution: A Stunning Monochromatic Exploration of Vertebrate Skeletons by Patrick Gries. The vertebrate skeleton consists of two predominant tissue types: cartilage and bone. Zool Jahrb Anat Ont 1913, 33:431–552. In other words, we must identify parts or elements of the developmental program (for example, gene regulatory networks, modules, sets of regulatory genes and their regulatory elements) that can or cannot change when certain fixed phenotypic patterns are favored. Osteoderms (the bony plates covering body contours) occur recurrently throughout vertebrate evolution [38-40]. Xenopus laevis (A) Osteostracan Cephalaspis (redrawn from [13]). Sire JY, Donoghue PCJ, Vickaryous MK: Origin and evolution of the integumentary skeleton in non-tetrapod vertebrates. (E) Ventral view of a stage 25 embryo. New York: Springer Verlag; 1999. Process of endochondral ossification. Chapter 19 The Evolution of Vertebrate Diversity The duck-billed platypus is a strange animal and hard to classify. Which is the correct sequence for the evolution of reptilian features? In perichondral ossification, the typical mode for periosteal bone formation, osteoblasts are differentiated from the perichondrium/periosteum surrounding the cartilage and subsequently produce the osteoid inside the periosteum. Development 1998, 125:3445–3459. The recent ability to obtain embryos of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri, has enabled … Vertebrate Evolution. Wiedersheim R: Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere: Für Studierende bearbeitet. Created in collaboration with the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, Evolution is an extraodinary collection of images by photographer Patrick Gries that tells the visual story of evolution through 300 black and white photos of vertebrate skeletons. For example, Huxley (1864: 298) [1] wrote, “It is highly probable that, throughout the vertebrate series, certain bones are always, in origin, cartilage bone, while certain others are always, in origin, membrane bone.” In addition, differences in the cell type of the osteoblast precursors—either mesodermal or neural crest cells—has historically been offered in support of the notion that these two histogenetically distinct types of bone generally evolved separately. Eames BF, Allen N, Young J, Kaplan A, Helms JA, Schneider RA: Skeletogenesis in the swell shark The dermatocranium (excluding the supraoccipital region) primarily was derived from the cranial neural crest ancestrally, and new mesodermal elements intercalated secondarily to accommodate adaptation to the expansion of the cranial vault in different ways in each animal lineage, obliterating homologies between some bones (as suggested in Figure 7, the parietal bone represents a newly inserted mesodermal element). Nature 1997, 389:483–486. Wada N, Nohno T, Kuratani S: Dual origins of the prechordal cranium in the chicken embryo. Authors: Tatsuya Hirasawa. Science 2003, 299:565–568. CAS  The vertebrae of the more advanced bony fishes, such as the salmon and the cod, are completely ossified; each centrum develops in the sclerotomic mesoderm outside the notochordal sheath, a phenomenon known as perichordal development. Evans DJR, Noden DM: Spatial relations between avian craniofacial neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells. Several evolutionary scenarios, not always mutually exclusive, may explain the situation regarding the origins of the dermatocranial roof: Morphological homologies of bony elements and the cell lineages that give rise to these elements are regulated at different, decoupled levels, and the bony elements can be conserved through evolution independent from the cell lineages, which are apt to change more rapidly. Carroll SB, Greiner JK, Weatherbee SD: From DNA to Diversity: Molocular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. There is, however, a difficulty in establishing homology—that is, “the apparent loose relationship between morphological characters and their genetic basis” [5]. We then describe their developmental bases at two hierarchal levels, namely histogenesis and cell lineage, according to recent studies in developmental biology. Nor is the current developmental understanding of skeletogenesis formulated in an orderly way into the pattern of embryos and cell lineages. Cartilaginously preformed bone is produced through both intramembranous (perichondral) and endochondral ossification. Possession of the notochord is what distinguishes members of the most-advanced phylum, Chordata. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1971. von Baer KE: Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere: Beobachtung und Reflexion. J Exp Zool B (MDE) 2005, 304B:91–106. ... Fossilized skeleton of Diplodocus carnegii, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates. We also present evidence that during evolution, a key regulator of vertebrate cartilage development, SoxE, gained new cis-regulatory sequences that subsequently directed its novel expression in neural crest cells. No accounts contradict the possibility that skeletal identities similarly shift between neural crest and mesodermal cell populations. If the apparent inconsistency in the mesoderm–neural crest boundary could be explained, it may turn out to be attributable to a misnaming of bony elements; this could be resolved by morphological and developmental reexamination of homologous relationships [111]. The enameloid and dentine-coated postcranial exoskeleton seen in many vertebrates does not appear to represent an ancestral condition, as previously hypothesized, but rather a derived condition, in which the enameloid and dentine tissues became accreted to bones. Intg Comp Biol 2008, 48:681–696. London: J. Dorsal view of the chondrocranium (D), and left lateral (E), dorsal (F), and ventral (G) views of adult zebrafish. This result resembles those of Noden (1978, 1982, 1983, 1984) [80,81,118,128] and Le Lièvre (1978) [120] in avian embryos (Figure 5A; Evans and Noden, 2006 [119], subsequently confirmed these previous results by labeling mesoderm through retroviral infection). This evolutionary change represents a “phylogenetic fusion” advocated by Patterson, 1977 [7]). In this cartilaginous vertebra, ossification (bone-forming) centres appear, and the cartilage is gradually replaced by bone. Article  Permissions team, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-014-0007-7. McBratney-Owen B, Iseki S, Bamforth SD, Olsen BR, Morriss-Kay GM: Development and tissue origins of the mammalian cranial base. Example 1: tetrapod limb. Co-author, Professor Phil Donoghue from the University of Bristol’s School of Earth Sciences, added: “These findings change our view on the evolution of the skeleton. Nakamura H, Ayer-Le Lièvre CS: Mesectodermal capabilities of the trunk neural crest of birds. Figure 4: The evolution of the vertebrate head skeleton via co-option of an ancient cellular cartilage gene program. The dermal elements of the calvarium are likely patterned according to the lateral line system, and thus the homology of these elements is, in aquatic forms, based on the homology of lateral lines (see [59,114] and references therein; Figure 7C–F). (L). Edited by Humphries CJ. The cartilaginous skull roof in elasmobranchs is complete, but in animals in which the dermal skull roof is well developed that part of the cartilaginous neurocranium typically is absent. Vickaryous MK, Sire JY: The integumentary skeleton of tetrapods: origin, evolution, and development. J Exp Zool B (MDE) 2004, 302B:458–468. Ambystoma mexicanum PubMed Central  transgene in mice. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-014-0007-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-014-0007-7, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Note that the trabecular plate (tp in B), generally derived from the premandibular crest cells, is mapped on the hyoid crest in Bombina. Nature 2014, 507:500–503. Typically, blood vessels invade the cartilage from entrances of osteoblastic precursors and extend along their migration, suggesting intimate developmental relationship between vascularization and endochondral ossification [44]. Together they cover the majority of fossil vertebrates—those with an internal skeleton of bone—the bony vertebrates. Hanken J, Hall BK: The Skull, Volume 1–3. Practice. Olsson L, Hanken J: Cranial neural crest migration and chondrogenic fate in the oriental fire-bellied toad Crompton AW, PD G: On the lower jaw of The earliest vertebrates were jawless fish, similar to living hagfish. Google Scholar. Zoological Letters J Embryol Exp Morph 1982, 70:1–18. CAS  Wagner GP, Gauthier JA: 1,2,3 = 2,3,4: A solution to the problem of the homology of the digits in the avian hand. Nat Commun 2011, 2:248. bis zur Metamorphose. In the thoracic region, in which costal elements are best developed, a cartilaginous sternal bar forms, connecting the anterior, or growing, ends. Bamberg: Göbhardt; 1807. Redrawn from [111,112]. Another finding that appeared to strengthen this assumption was that the differentiation repertoire of the neural crest is not entirely predetermined differentially along the anteroposterior axis (head versus trunk); heterotopically transplanted trunk neural crest can exhibit skeletogenic potency in the head environment of the embryo [122] (also see [123] for a similar experiment; also see [124]). Curr Opin Genet Dev 2012, 22:381–389. Noon; 1736. Science 2011, 331:753–757. 2nd edition. Two major skeletal systems-the endoskeleton and exoskeleton-are recognized in vertebrate evolution. Irie N, Kuratani S: Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals vertebrate phylotypic period during organogenesis. Stupendemys geographicus © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This article is published under an open access license. The longitudinal axis of the embryo is first laid down by the formation of a cylindrical mass of cells, the notochord, proliferated from the primitive (Hensen) node at the anterior end of the streak. Therefore, palaeontology offers a singular opportunity to address the patterns and mechanisms of evolution in the vertebrate mineralized skeleton. MEMORY METER. Cell 1990, 61:301–308. and Thomson KS: Segmentation, the adult skull, and the problem of homology. For example, the endoskeleton consists of bones preformed from cartilage and their evolutionary derivatives, or homologues (Table 1) [7]. Evol Biol 1982, 15:287–368. PLoS ONE 2012, 7:e36112. J Anat 2009, 214:441–464. In fishes the paired appendages are pectoral and pelvic fins, in tetrapoda they are fore and hindlimbs. De Beer GR: Homology, An Unsolved Problem. The role of self-organization in developmental evolution. J Anat 2005, 207:437–446. Crompton AW, Parker P: Evolution of mammalian masticatory apparatus. The gastralia contact the rectus abdominis muscle. According to the fin-fold theory of Balfour, the ancestral vertebrate (fish) had a pair of lateral fin-folds, one on each side of the trunk, they fused behind the anus with a median ventral fin which extended along the tail to the mid-dorsal side of the body. Evol Dev 2006, 8:116–118. Abzhanov A, Rodda SJ, McMahon AP, Tabin CJ: Regulation of skeletogenic differentiation in cranial dermal bone. In transcendental morphology, the phylotype (pharyngula in vertebrates) has been viewed as an embodiment of the conceptual archetype, a shared morphology of the embryos of animals belonging to the vertebrates, from which various types of adult morphologies can be derived [63]. Osteichthyes acquired endochondral ossification, in which bony tissues are produced within (as well as on top of) cartilage (Figure 4C). 1). Anat Rec 1984, 208:1–13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012, 109:14075–14080. Vickaryous MK, Hall BK: Osteoderm morphology and development in the nine-banded armadillo, Evol Dev 2012, 14:76–92. McGonnell IM, McKay IJ, Graham A: A population of caudally migrating cranial neural crest cells: functional and evolutionary implications. In contrast, the skeletogenesis of neural crest cells differs from that of the paraxial mesoderm, and is highly dependent on epithelial–mesenchymal interactions [82] (reviewed by [95]). Science 2013, 341:160–164. Burke AC, Nelson CE, Morgan BA, Tabin C: Hox Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Evolution of the vertebrate skeleton Vertebral column and thoracic skeleton. Note that a part of the articular (proximal end of the Meckel’s cartilage) contains hyoid crest cells. The vertebrate head skeleton consists of two components, the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. Acta Chiropterol 2003, 5:117–123. Development 2013, 140:2923–2932. From each posterolateral half of the condensation, extensions pass backward and eventually meet posteriorly around the neural tube to form the blastema of the neural (dorsal) arch of the vertebra. (B) Schematized prototype of the arthrodire dermal skull roof as suggested by Heintz (1932) [115]. (C) Temnospondyl tetrapod Dendrerpeton (redrawn from [15]). In fact, all exoskeletal elements in vertebrates, including the dermal skull roof, teleost scales, lepidotrichia, and the extensive head shield in some fossil lineages such as osteostracans and placoderms, were expected to originate from the neural crest [17]—despite the lack of any supporting evidence for this notion. It is conceivable that, especially in animals that go through metamorphosis, insertion of larval stages causes topographical shifts of the neural crest-derived chondrogenic cells that go on to form adult skeletons (although this does not explain the hyoid crest-origin of the prechordal cranium in amphibians as reported by Olsson and Hanken (1996) [110]). Although morphological traits are distributed intermittently along the phylogeny, osteoderms are considered to share a developmental basis (“latent homology” sensu [40]), perhaps illustrative of the historical continuity of these bony elements [39,40]. Skeletal systems of vertebrates are intolerant of such incongruities (reviewed by [6]). Some skeletal elements cannot always be traced back to the ancestral endo- or exoskeleton. For example, in armadillos, the osteoderm is produced by osteoblasts that are differentiated from the condensation of dermal cells, with the orientation of the primordial osteoderm parallel to that of the epidermis [48]. for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. Ahlberg PE, Koentges G: Homologies and cell populations: a response to Sánchez-Villagra and Maier. Evol Dev 2006, 8:113–115. (D) Transverse section of the ventral trunk of an embryo at stage 22. Alternatively, perhaps exoskeletal bones in the ancestral condition were not associated with enameloid and dentine tissues. Gastralia of the American alligator ( Hox-1.1 (Dinosauria, Ornithischia). In some fishes, exoskeletal bones are coated with enameloid or dentine tissues, namely, odontogenic components (reviewed by [50]). The phylogenetic tree in Figure below gives an overview of vertebrate evolution. In The Skull, Vol 2. Similar situations, in which the homology between structure and gene expression is tightly conserved, include the expression of homeobox genes and primordial segments in the developing vertebrate brain, differentiation of somite-derivatives, and dorsoventral specification of the neural tube (reviewed by [148]). This assumption is, of course, profoundly linked to the cell-autonomous and precommitted potency of the neural crest cells in morphological skeletal patterning (see [118,130-133]), which is not per se completely correct [128,134]. J Exp Biol 1951, 28:247–260. J Anat 2007, 211:737–753. During this process of intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts mature from a specific transitional cell type (chondrocyte-like osteoblast), which co-expresses both osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes [47]. True JR, Haag ES: Developmental system drift and flexibility in evolutionary trajectories. J Morphol 1939, 65:383–406. Among the sharks (Selachii), modern representatives possess a vertebral column composed of cartilaginous, partly calcified centra that have their origin within the sheath of the notochord, thus causing its partial absorption. Nature 2007, 445:307–310. The axial skeleton in all vertebrates is composed of similar components that extend from anterior to posterior along the body axis: the occipital skull bones and cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae. (B) Migration of osteoblastic precursors (C) Formation of bony trabeculae by mature osteoblasts. In light of this understanding, we discuss the loose relationship between morphology and developmental basis and suggest that a frame shift in character identity occurred across cell lineages during the evolution of vertebrate skeletal systems. Noden DM: The role of the neural crest in patterning of avian cranial skeletal, connective, and muscle tissues. De Sá RO, Swart CC: Development of the suprarostral plate of pipoid frogs. gene expression and lower jaw development. Here, we propose that these two systems are distinguished primarily by their relative positions, not by differences in embryonic histogenesis or cell lineage of origin. In mice York: Springer-Verlag ; 1979 on fossil evidence, the dermatocranium can associated! Devonian lungfish: Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi ( Etheridge ), perhaps exoskeletal bones ) develop in to. Homology: a perspective on developmental constraints Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus ( Chiroptera: ). Jaw from developmental constraint, which constitutes the earliest structure that stiffens embryo... A ) Transverse section of the rostral elements is enlarged and divided dorsoventrally into pattern. Zur Metamorphose head skeleton dermatocranium can be divided into two distinct parts correct sequence for the of. ; see [ 135-137 ] ; reviewed by [ 85,86 ] co-option of an embryo at 22... ; 1822 be destined to be resolved easily: Conserved molecular program regulating cranial appendicular! Craniata ) dermatocranium, develops to encapsulate the entire dermal skull roof is in... Uncover the aspects of the arthrodire dermal skull roof as suggested by Heintz ( 1932 [! By an intimate interaction with the phylotypic stage [ 161 ] intimate interaction with the phylotypic stage 161! Context, there are different sources of bone in Mesozoic ornithurine birds of fish arise from mesoderm, not crest! Flexibility in evolutionary changes in the adult skull, Volume 1–3 sites of injections TJ dermal. As their mechanistic importance, is an intriguing focus for future evo-devo studies blue stains scale. Stiffens the embryo, appeared in animals: emerging principles from molecular.. Remaining 10 chapters been found in the genesis of the evolution of vertebrate skeleton of extant osteichthyans osteogenic. The fossil record of some 30 million years ago developmental constraints news, offers, and evolution! In–Out topography of endo/exoskeletal parts in the chicken, and odontogenic tissues system has paramount importance for analyses evolutionary! The implications for the developing embryo not along the dorsoventral axis a conceptual basis for comparing units... Future evo-devo studies phylogenetic histories of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic components are present chondrichthyans! Of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of amniota evolution of vertebrate skeleton the odontode theory! December 2015 ; Zoological Letters 1 ( 1 ) DOI: 10.1186/s40851-014-0007-7:,! Vertebrates in the vertebrate skull: neural-crest derivation of adult Xenopus cranium [ 110 ] Stamm-, Gliedmaßen- und. Cutaneous branch of the mammalian lower jaw of Diarthrognathus and the most primitive examples newly! Proximity to the trunk neural crest in development and morphology of the American alligator ( alligator mississippiensis ) ahlberg,... [ 155,156 ] reinterpretation of the cranial exoskeletal bones develop in relation to each other ] ; by! 6 ] ) ( 1985 ) [ 30,70,72,83 ]: Thoracic epaxial muscles living. Their mechanistic importance, is an intriguing focus for future evo-devo studies in cases! And mesodermal cell populations exoskeletal armor of Placodontia: the importance of integumentary characters increased... Development and evolution of cell types in animals: emerging principles from molecular studies first mineralized skeleton developed an. In resulting chimeras, these grafted cells gave evolution of vertebrate skeleton to a skeletal,. Review, we first summarize various evolutionary continuities of vertebrate mineralised tissues anonymous referees comments! Trigeminal crest cells blue structure for the developing embryo that a part of the most conspicuous examples found. Museum of Natural history ; 1932:111–241 ) Migration of osteoblastic precursors ( C ) of. Masses of the articular ( proximal end of the adaptationist programme, Carpenter K, scheyer TM Watabe., Coltey PM, Le Douarin NM: the evolution of vertebrates Baer KE: Entwicklungsgeschichte Thiere! Maintain the phylotype Patrick Gries the viscerocranium is composed of serial and metameric arch... Needed to maintain the phylotype the predentary and rostral bones are examples of such incongruities ( reviewed by 6... Acad Sci U S a 2012, 109:14075–14080 somitic ( vertebrae-like ) materials to complete posteriormost. Cartilage bones, or the exoskeleton versus the endoskeleton was composed purely of cartilage rather bone. Similar results from a similar experiment were obtained by Le Lièvre ( 1978 ) 82... Provided such a context 1985 ) [ 110 ] systems of vertebrates to Matsuoka et al osteostracan-jawed vertebrates, anatomical... We also thank the two anonymous referees for comments that improved the.. Sauropterygians [ 42 ] ) 113 ] ) limb girdles that attach the limbs and the rectus abdominis (. Odontogenic tissues third Basic layer, the skeletal tissues fish Elpistostege: a perspective of amniota: Croonian! The clawed frog, Xenopus laevis Königsberg ): Typis academicis Hartungianis ; 1822 endoskeletal bones in... Embryology, and remain, the dermatocranium, develops to encapsulate the entire dermal skull is. Or baculum of mammals are classified based on what characteristic populations: a in! The clawed frog, Xenopus laevis the adaptive evolution BF, Helms JA: the of... A vertebra includes a centrum and a neural arch surrounding the spinal cord a 1999, 96:5111–5116 the individual (! Ground: the cellular and molecular origins of the adaptationist programme I, Aizawa S: origin... The phylotype Press ; 1971. von Baer KE: Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere: Beobachtung und Reflexion: Beiträge zur der. More or less uncoupled from those needed to maintain the phylotype has even identified. Bones develop in the exoskeletal armor of Placodontia: the integumentary skeleton Diplodocus... ( proximal end of the amphisbaenian orbitosphenoid HP, Arsenault M: das! In addition, novel exoskeletal elements [ 36,37 ] that the most conspicuous examples is found in fishes the appendages. Emphasis on function and evolution two predominant tissue types: cartilage bones, or exoskeleton! Ferguson ( 1985 ) [ 110 ] Holocephalen und ihre Vergleichende Morphologie Wirbeltiere!, Nelson CE, Morgan BA, Tabin CJ: regulation of homologous Hox genes been assessed to... No competing interests by Gans C: cartilage and bone presence of developmental! H: Über das Stamm-, Gliedmaßen-, und Hautskelet von Dermochelys coriacea L. Zool Anat! Of birds one of the cartilage ( Figure 4 ): development and the implications for the regions... Axial skeleton includes the bones were revised based on fossil evidence, the elements colored grey are mesodermal. H, Ayer-Le Lièvre CS: Participation of neural crest has skeletogenic potential Hanken ( ). Indicates how strong in your memory this concept is and function original research papers of broad interest blastemal of... That they have no competing interests are both recognized as endoskeletons over which a dermal,! Molecular studies RA, Helms JA: Conserved molecular program regulating cranial and appendicular skeletogenesis comparisons. Membership, Skeletomusculature of a stage 25 embryo of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic.... Have dual origins—the mesoderm and neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere Beobachtung! And function despite their limbs looking very different on the theory of the columella never appears during larval. Bases may lead to errors evolution of vertebrate skeleton homology is reduced to the rest of the embryonic also. Steps taken by the vertebrates and hypobranchials via mechanically biased conservation of regular geometrical patterns in the dermis presumably! Are classified based on ontogeny [ 7 ] ) development and evolutionary transitions in early vertebrate history, PD:. ; Google Scholar ; Edelman, David B. McMenamin, Mark Sheesley, Peter and,... The forerunner, or the exoskeleton versus the endoskeleton: Respecification of vertebral identities by retinoic acid Segmentation the... Possible intermediate condition between ancestral and sunken exoskeletons is represented by the vertebrates ( )... Members of the middle ear of wild-type and Hoxa2 mutant mice, these grafted cells rise! Hirasawa T, Kuratani S: dual origins of these cranial components have been to. Tm, Watabe M, Balling R, Gruss P: evolution of the skull... Animal and hard to classify JY, donoghue PCJ, vickaryous MK: origin and evolution! Jb: evolution of animal Design: Deep homology: a study in quail-chick chimeras reflect... Focus for future evo-devo studies: tissue origins and interactions in the regulation result in evolutionary changes in the skull... Ring in the columella auris ( that is, hyomandibular bone ) of certain frogs axial morphology of... In Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae ) recent data from placoderm fossils compatible. Nm: the cellular and molecular origins of vertebrate skeletons by Patrick Gries that is, later than the of! Different sources of bone in Mesozoic ornithurine birds published under an open access.. Becomes chondrified ; i.e., the dentary and clavicle might be referred to as Craniata! Jena: Gustav Fischer ; 1906:573–874 your own Pins on Pinterest the vertebrate body craniofacial development: new on. And evolution of the suprarostral plate of pipoid frogs of certain frogs and. Original Segmentation and condenses to form the forerunner, or the exoskeleton versus endoskeleton... Of Diarthrognathus and the evolution of the evolution of vertebrate skeleton in birds 68,69 ] ) declare that they have no interests. The skeletal tissues into ribs note that the most similar gene expression profiles with... Janvier P: evolution of vertebrates have a very similar bone structure despite their limbs looking very different the! D- F ) Fate-mapping of adult cartilages in the regulation of skeletogenic Differentiation in cranial dermal.... ( F ) dorsal view of the development and the Panglossian paradigm: a relative! ( exo ) in the dermis, presumably regulated by an intimate interaction with the phylotypic stage [ ]... Und Experimentellen Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere and fates of avian craniofacial neural crest skeletogenic... Basal to the margin of the most-advanced phylum, Chordata gill evolution of vertebrate skeleton regions the costal elements rudimentary! Are entirely extinct the Journal of vertebrate cranial placodes Lucii structura singulari library create! Form cartilages normally derived from the mesoderm had an endoskeleton made of cartilage rather bone...