Cheap paper writing service provides high-quality essays for affordable prices. In addition, there are some limitations concerning the instrument used to assess reading comprehension. A possible reason might be that the participants were quite homogenous and did not produce much variance in the reading scores , which could lead to a deflation of the reliability estimate (Davies et al., as cited in [63]). However, the magnitude of the correlation he reported was higher than that obtained in the present study. As words are an integral part of a language, vocabulary knowledge has been widely considered one of fundamental contributors to the comprehension of a text. Unfortunately, many of them, as reported by several researchers (e.g. In the present study, the participants’ performance on reading comprehension was assessed by a published intermediate level sample test from the Cambridge Preliminary English Test 4 (hereafter CPET), which was at Level B1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)—an internationally recognized benchmark of language ability. Ordering your academic papers with us is one of the best decisions you will make in your academic life as you will never regret this decision. They further reported that nearly 80% of prefixed words could be understood with the aid of knowledge about the less common meanings of the prefixes along with the aid of context. Finally, among the three subcomponents of depth of vocabulary knowledge, collocation knowledge explained the most proportion of variance (5.6%) in contributing to performance on reading comprehension. The original MSLQ scale included items such as “I am certain I can understand the ideas taught in this course,” while the adapted scale consisted of items such as “I am certain I can understand the ideas taught in English.” The self-efficacy scale contained nine items to measure students’ self-efficacy when they learn English. Another point worth mentioning is that the correlation coefficient (, ) obtained in the present study between word association and vocabulary size seemed to be comparable to that (, ) found in Schmitt and Meara’s [20] study. Among the three subcomponents of depth of vocabulary knowledge, collocation knowledge was found to have highest proportion of variance contribution to predicting reading comprehension performance. In addition to the importance of collocation knowledge in language learning in general, numerous studies (e.g., [31]) have shown its crucial role specifically in learners’ reading comprehension. The test takers were required to choose from one of the descriptions that best matched each person. The mean percentage correct score (88%) of the vocabulary size test was the highest among the four tests. The addition of depth of vocabulary knowledge in Model 3 changed the size of to .25, showing a statistically significant increase of .06, or 6% of the explained variance in reading comprehension (, ). The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. In view of Meara’s [24] suggestion, Read [23] designed and developed an alternative word association test to measure college students’ word association knowledge. Thus, making 100 measurements rather than 4 does not mprove the precision by a factor of'T = 25, but only by a factor of V25, or 5. Several other measurement-related limitations pertain to the instruments used to assess vocabulary knowledge. Yu-han Ma, Wen-ying Lin, "A Study on the Relationship between English Reading Comprehension and English Vocabulary Knowledge", Education Research International, vol. In fact, the results of the current study made a further contribution by revealing that, after controlling the two affective variables (i.e., motivation and self-efficacy), depth of vocabulary knowledge does not exert that large amount of explained variance over vocabulary size in reading comprehension, as claimed by Qian’s [9] and Qian’s [10] studies. Each pair of words was followed by the words “YES” and “NO.” The test takers were required to put a tick under the word “YES” if the pair of words was related and “NO” if the pair of words was not related. Their length of exposure to formal EFL instruction ranged from nine to twelve years. Considering that reading ability is a receptive skill, it seems that there is a need to investigate whether morphological knowledge, when assessed by a receptive test, would still be a significant predictor to reading comprehension. Finally, the results of the current study also shed some light on the interrelationships among vocabulary size, word association, collocation, and morphological knowledge. A plausible explanation for this contradictory finding may be due to the fact that the two studies adopted different reading tests to gauge reading comprehension. Thus, the maximum possible total score was 32 for the 32 test items. a. Thus, depth of vocabulary knowledge added a unique proportion (6%) of explained variance in reading comprehension on top of the 14% variance provided by vocabulary size. What came next were word association and collocation, both of which shared the same strength of relationship (, ) with reading comprehension score. The former tested knowledge of syntactic category using real word whereas the latter examined knowledge of syntactic category by means of nonsense word. However, even though they found that morphological knowledge has explanatory power independent of breadth of vocabulary and word reading skill, their results should be interpreted with some caution. Furthermore, responses that were made by two or more participants accounted for 71%. Each item of the test was scored one point. The VIFs calculated for the independent variables in the present study ranged from 1.42 to 4.31 and were all below 10, suggesting no multicollinearity within the data. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Obtaining the correlation coefficient as large as .87 between word association knowledge and collocation knowledge was hardly surprising. The following is a sample item: Originally called the Word Associates Test (WAT), the depth of vocabulary knowledge (DVK) measure was developed by [23]. Based on the results of many previous studies (e.g., [6, 7]) in Taiwan, most Taiwanese freshmen’s average receptive vocabulary size is about 2,000–3,000 words. However, it turned out only 38 different association responses were obtained. The following is an example of the items in the test: The Language Learning Orientation Scale (hereafter LLOS), developed by Noels et al. As multiple regression analyses were to be done in the present study, the variance inflation factor (VIF) for each of the independent variables was calculated to check whether the required assumption of no multicollinearity has been met. The words in the top boxes were used to assess the participants’ receptive aspect of word association knowledge, while the words in the bottom boxes were utilized to measure the participants’ receptive aspect of collocation knowledge. Taken together, it appears that there is a growing tendency to view vocabulary knowledge as a multidimensional construct instead of a single dimension. [35] pointed out that in spite of their length and low frequency, recognizing the familiar parts and understanding how these parts contribute to the meaning of the word give English language learners access to the meaning of novel words encountered in texts while they read. In response to the Taiwanese learners’ declining reading performance in worldwide large scale proficiency tests and the empirically evidenced inadequacy of their vocabulary knowledge, the present study was called for in an attempt to take a close look at the relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge among college students in Taiwan. According to Read, the stimulus words and corresponding associates were chosen based on three types of relationship including paradigmatic, syntagmatic, and analytic. In particular, in the first session, the participants took the reading comprehension test. Finally, three more regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contribution of each of the three vocabulary knowledge depth subcomponents to performance on reading comprehension on top of the variance afforded by motivation, self-efficacy, and vocabulary size. They concluded that the observed increase in fluency of the learners was the result of learners storing memorized sequences and suggested that having a good command of collocation is crucial for acquiring native-like fluency and selection. (4) Compared with others in English class, I think I am a good student. Each block contained six words and three definitions. In addition, vocabulary size was moderately related to morphological knowledge (, ) and to collocation (, ). Similarly, Johnston (as cited in [21]) also obtained a figure of 57% when she examined the three most popular responses provided by fourth and fifth graders. In response to the paucity of previous studies on this issue in EFL or ESL settings, Kieffer and Lesaux [36] conducted a study to examine the relationship between morphological knowledge and reading comprehension in English among Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) from fourth to fifth grade. Table 2 shows two example items of the questionnaire. Still one more point also deserving some discussion is about the correlation coefficient (, ) found between vocabulary size and morphological knowledge. There was a one-week interval between the two sessions for the purpose of avoiding the participants’ fatigue from taking the tests. Part One of the MST, the Syntactic Categories of Suffixes Using Real Words (hereafter Syncat-real Test), comprised 27 sentences, each of which contained a blank and was followed by four real words which were different derivations of the same stem; that is, the answer choices differed from each other only in their suffixes. Firstly, after controlling the effects of motivation and self-efficacy, the four vocabulary subcomponents overall contributed significantly to reading comprehension. Specifically, taking words like “uncourteously” or “queenlike,” for example, Nagy et al. [42] was a major improvement on the original test. As shown in Table 6, when vocabulary size was entered into the equation in Model 2, it accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in reading comprehension with , , . When teaching a new word, teachers are advised to demonstrate some of its most common collocations at the same time. This finding appeared to be inconsistent with that of Mahony’s [38] study, in which scores on her derivative word form test were not significantly related to performance on reading comprehension ( for Syncat-real section and for Relational section). The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to explore the overall contribution of the four vocabulary subcomponents and (b) to examine the relative contribution of each of the four subcomponents. The results are displayed in Table 5. In this analysis, motivation and self-efficacy, entered into the equation in Model 1, accounted for 5% variance in reading comprehension. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes for the two analyses was all significant at both .05 and .01 levels of significance. For instance, in the present study, only one instrument was utilized to assess each of the four vocabulary knowledge subcomponents. Specifically, the study aimed to address the following research questions. N. Diakidoy, and R. C. Anderson, “The acquisition of morphology: learning the contribution of suffixes to the meanings of derivatives,”, M. J. Kieffer and N. K. Lesaux, “The role of derivational morphology in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking English language learners,”, S. H. Deacon and J. R. Kirby, “Morphological awareness: Just ‘more phonological’? As vocabulary knowledge has been perceived as a multidimensional construct [9, 10], the current study specifically is aimed at finding out the overall and relative contribution of vocabulary knowledge’s various subcomponents to explaining the variance of Taiwanese learners’ reading comprehension performance. [34] reported that for fourth to ninth graders, morphological knowledge accounted for significant and unique variation (ranging from 38% to 86%) in reading comprehension independent of breadth of vocabulary knowledge, word reading, and phonological awareness. Likewise, in the case of derivative word form, Mahony [38] also reported that the proficient 11th graders had a high degree of sensitivity to word structure and the poor learners had greater difficulty in generalizing knowledge about suffixes to novel words. As such, the native English speakers appeared to exhibit a great deal of similarity in organization of mental lexicons. The final step involved merely entering association. Similarly, Horwitz [15] also found that a substantial number of language learners agreed that learning vocabulary is the most important part of learning a foreign or second language. However, considering that the present study attempted to investigate the relationship of word association knowledge to reading comprehension, which pertains to a receptive skill, it seemed reasonable to adopt such a receptive test of word association as DVK. Indeed, it has long been held that vocabulary knowledge is one of the most significant predictors of text difficulty. A total of seven variables were involved in the present study: reading comprehension, vocabulary size, word association knowledge, collocation knowledge, morphological knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy. A plausible reason for the higher contribution in both of Qian’s studies was that he did not control the effects of any affective variables, which might overestimate the prediction of depth of vocabulary knowledge. In terms ofthe overall contribution of the four vocabulary subcomponents to reading comprehension, when the effects of motivation and self-efficacy have been controlled, there was still a statistically significant relationship (20% of the explained variance) between the four subcomponents and reading comprehension. [34] asserted that given that a considerable portion of English words have meanings that are predictable from the meanings of their parts, knowledge of morphology is perceived to play an important role in determining how learners read and learn new, long word, which in turn impacts their reading comprehension. As far as the first dimension, vocabulary size or breadth of vocabulary knowledge, is concerned, numerous studies have been conducted on vocabulary size of a particular group of ESL (English as a second language) or EFL students. A. Nurweni and J. This finding seemed to suggest that the four subcomponents altogether play an important role in the reading comprehension of the university students. The maximum possible total score of the motivation questionnaire was 100. According to Qian [9], the key answers to eight items in Read’s [23] WAT were considered ambiguous and were thus replaced. They found no differences, so they concluded that simplifying syntax does not necessarily lead to more readable texts. Among the various subcomponents of the second dimension (i.e., depth of vocabulary knowledge) that have been researched, word association knowledge has seemed to gain a lot of attention. It raises the concern as to whether the learners can guess successfully when they have partial knowledge of the word or even when they have no knowledge of the word at all. The sample reading test contained five parts. The reliability estimate obtained for the test was only .50. As such, adequate vocabulary knowledge appears to be one of the prerequisites for successful reading comprehension. Empirical evidence for this position comes from a longitudinal study conducted by Towell et al. 4 “Shareholder” and “stockholder” mean exactly the same thing and are used interchangeably. However, these answers were not evenly spread. To start with, both the DVK test and the MST had a tendency to overestimate learners’ vocabulary knowledge since it is susceptible to guessing. For instance, in a study on text simplification, Strother and Ulijn [14] compared reading comprehension scores between original texts and texts that had been simplified in a syntactical rather than lexical way. Taken together, it appeared that learners’ vocabulary size is at least moderately associated with their performance on reading comprehension, despite the slight difference in the strength of relationship found between the two studies. Finally, among the three subcomponents of depth of vocabulary knowledge, collocation was found to explain the most proportion of variance in contributing to performance on reading comprehension. Each item of the test was scored one point. For the DVK measure, each word correctly chosen was awarded one point. Typical awareness-raising activities such as getting students to underline the collocations encountered in a text and asking students to think up as many collocations as they can with a common word (e.g., make: make a mistake/a meal/trouble/friends/a complaint) are recommended [53]. The results seemed to be in agreement with those of Qian’s [10] study, where the same DVK test was also used. A must-read for English-speaking expatriates and internationals across Europe, Expatica provides a tailored local news service and essential information on living, working, and moving to your country of choice. Similarly, Farrokh and Mahmoodzadeh [54], Jafarigohar and Nazari [55], and Lewis [56] also asserted that, in order to comprehend and produce language, much of native speakers’ mental lexicon consists of many types of prefabricated chunks, and collocations are the largest part of these chunks. Concerning the relationship of reading comprehension to the four vocabulary subcomponents, the strongest correlation (, ) was found between reading comprehension and vocabulary size. Among the four subcomponents, vocabulary size had the highest correlation (, ) with reading comprehension, despite the fact that the strength of the correlation was just moderate. As such, from the psycholinguistic perspective, the human brain equips itself much better for memorizing than for processing, and the availability of large numbers of collocation chunks reduces the processing effort and thus makes reading efficient (e.g., [29, 57]). For the first analysis, the first step was to enter motivation and self-efficacy as a predictor block, and then vocabulary size was then entered in the second step. A few students whose educational background was similar to the participants’ of the current study were invited to take the 2,000, 3,000, and 5,000 Word Levels Test. Read, “The English vocabulary knowledge of Indonesian university students,”, H. Y. Wu and P. Hu, “Major factors influencing reading comprehension: a factor analysis approach,”, T. L. Huang, “On the importance of emphasizing vocabulary teaching,” in, H. J. Chen, “How many words do they know? By means of retrieving chunks of language from long-term memory, language reception and language production are made more effective. For each of the seven variables, its corresponding instrument used is described in the following sections. They reported that there was a statistically significant relationship (, ) between morphological knowledge and reading comprehension among Spanish-speaking English language fifth graders even when the influence of the learners’ word reading skills, vocabulary breadth, and phonological awareness was controlled. In other words, word association, collocation, and morphological knowledge altogether made a unique contribution to the prediction of scores on reading comprehension beyond the prediction provided by scores on vocabulary size. Specifically, word association was shown to have the strongest correlation (, ) with collocation, followed by its correlation with vocabulary size (, ) and with morphological knowledge (, ). First of all, the finding of the present study that, among the four variables of vocabulary knowledge, breadth of vocabulary accounted for the largest proportion (i.e., 14%) of variance contribution to predicting reading performance appears to provide additional evidence to corroborate the longstanding claim that receptive vocabulary size is “the determinant factor for reading success” in L2 or FL ([51] p. 144). Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Specifically, the primary or the most popular response to “abandon” was “leave,” the secondary or the second most popular response was “ship,” and the tertiary or the third most popular response was “give up.” The top three responses were given by 53 participants. 2015, Article ID 209154, 14 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/209154, 1Department of English Instruction, University of Taipei, Taipei 100, Taiwan. mean, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation, t and F tests Katto For ratio variables, both differences and ratios are meaningful. Due to the time constraint, the present study tended not to test all vocabulary levels in the test. The VIF indicates whether an independent variable or a predictor has a strong linear relationship with the others. If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Success Essays is the right place to get it. The split-half reliability estimates for scores on the DVK association and DVK collocation were .67 and .66. Accordingly, these findings lent additional support to the common claim that reading comprehension is a complicated and multifaceted process [60]. The present study aimed to investigate the overall and relative contribution of four subcomponents of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. One seemingly possible reason for the high correlation between word association and collocation might be that, in the DVK test, the same stimulus word of each test item was used to measure the two subcomponents. First, after the effects of motivation and self-efficacy have been controlled, the four vocabulary subcomponents altogether contributed significantly (20%) to reading comprehension performance. By involving particular associates on the basis of these relationships, Read’s word association test is perceived to provide insight into the type of knowledge that learners have about a word and into the development of that knowledge [25]. Similarly, Kieffer and Lesaux [36] also stated that “the word-general ability to decompose morphologically complex words may lead to more successful word learning over time and thereby equip readers better to succeed with reading comprehension” (p. 785). These studies may shed some light on the relationship between knowledge of derivational morphology and reading comprehension. Solving. With more variables explored, the nature of learners’ reading comprehension could be better understood [64]. "(adv; adj) Side-by-side. As pointed out by Schmitt and Meara [20], a better understanding of these interrelationships could help get a clearer picture of the process of vocabulary acquisition. 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